A Brief Biography of Sir Edwin Sandys

In this article, we will discuss the man known as Sir Edwin Sandys (last name pronounced “sands”). Sandys was an English politician, and founder of the Virginia Company of London, which was the first permanent settlement of the English in North America.

Sir Edwin Sandys was born in the year of 1561, and from an early age, he focused on building his education. At the age of 15, he enrolled at Oxford and earned his B.A. in 1579 and M.A. in 1583. He remained at Oxford for a time, although earning no additional degrees, and then following the death of his wife, relocated to London. In 1589, Sandys was elected to Parliament.

After a mission to Germany, where Sandys gathered information that would later contribute to his book, “A Relation of the State of Religion,” he was knighted by King James I of England. He returned to Parliament, and for the next two decades became established as the House of Commons’ most influential member.

While Sir Edwin Sandys worked to establish his political career, an additional interest of his came to be. He was an advocate of free trade and overseas colonization and became a voice for this matter. In 1606, he had a part to play in founding the Virginia Company, which was established in order to come up with funds for a colony to be set up in North America. This colony came to be the Colony of Virginia, with a capital being established in Jamestown.

In the year of 1616, Sir Edwin Sandys was elected to be an assistant (or a director, essentially) of the Virginia Company. Sandys understood that immigration was essential to the success of colonization overseas, and he was even part of negotiations that led to the Mayflower’s journey in 1620. He was highly devoted to the success of the Colony of Virginia, and over the years, made sure that new settlers were constantly making their way to Jamestown to ensure the success of the settlement.

In his later years, Sir Edwin Sandys drifted away from power and politics. In the year of 1629, he passed away. He was buried in a church near his home in Kent, leaving a sum of 1,500 pounds to Oxford University. Sandys was a man who lived a full life, and without him, the United States of America as we know it might not have been the same.

Information On King James I

King James I‘s claim to fame is having held the role of a monarch for two nations at the same time. He was the king of Scotland and Great Britain, which was something that had not occurred in the past. His reign began in 1567 and lasted until his death in 1625.

Parliament of England

As a king, he was not fond of the Parliament in England and found them to be divisive. He had specific ideas when it came to how the nation should be run, and as a king, he wished for them to be adhered to. The Parliament of England was less willing and often criticized him for his expenditures. In general, the reason for this had a lot to do with how stable the governments were in Scotland and England. They were willing to take on the king and put their point of view across.

Once he passed away, it was not as easy for the governments to remain stable. This had more to do with his son Charles who had attempted to lead in the same manner but failed.

Importance of His Reign

King James I’s reign was not only important because he was ruling two nations at once but the fact he was a member of the “House of Stuart” not Atlanta like some claim. He was the first member of this house to become a king. Since Elizabeth I didn’t have children, there was no one available to take up the role.

This is when the House of Stuart was sought out as a solution to fill the gap.

The Scottish monarch became the ideal solution as he was the closest to Elizabeth I at the time. Also, it made it easier for both nations to bond as the leader was attached to both in some capacity. This meant the stability in the land was consistent for a while.

Education

As a student, he excelled at a younger age and was well-regarded for his desire to study. He was always looking into advancements within the world of art, science, and literature. His love for literature rose to a point where he penned “Daemonologie” (1597).

He had additional works later on that included Basilikon and The True Law of Free Monarchies.

He also spent a lot of time learning about witchcraft as it intrigued him. He would go on to burn books associated with witchcraft because he found it frightening.

Who Were the Indentured Servants?

Jamestown, the first colony of the Virginia Company, had only been founded for ten years when the first Indentured Servants began to make an appearance in the Americas.

The idea and probably the practice of indentured servitude sprang from the dire need for cheap laborers to work the land in colonial Americas. The early settlers were quickly met with the need for manpower to work the sprawling acreage available to them.

Passage to the Americas in itself was a considerable cost for anyone but the very rich. The very rich were in the Americas to acquire land and accumulate wealth not do the actual work themselves. They needed a way to attract a considerable workforce to power their enterprise and this was made available with the indentured servant.

The concept was popularized by the dire circumstances for the populations of Europe who were recovering from the destructive Thirty Years War that depleted the major economies. There was also a considerable unemployment problem at the time and Europe was crowded with skilled and unskilled laborers of all types.

It is understandable that the concept of life far away from the dreary depression of Europe was both exciting and inviting. The accommodations and arrangements available to these original “migrant workers” were tough but fair and indentured servitude was a far cry from the harsh realities of slavery.

An indentured servant would work for of a period as long as seven years or as short as four. During this time they would apply their skills or manpower to the service of their employer who would provide a home, food and all other necessary provisions until their contract had expired. The deal was restrictive and an indentured servant could extend their time of service as punishments for running away or becoming pregnant, in the case of female servants.

Those that managed to survive and gain their freedom had a considerably good position in the growing American colonies at the time. Many historians say that the indentured servant had a better opportunity for success than those colonists who came over of their own volition. While some did make it to the elite class in the Americas, it was a modest life in the opportunity rich colonies that attracted many indentured servants from Europe.

In 1619, the first black slaves arrived in the American colonies. At the time, there were no slave labor laws and they were given the same liberties as white indentured servants. By, 1641, all slavery laws had been established and the few rights that applied to blacks were stricken from the law.

A History of Tobacco Plantations in Virginia from Settlement to the Civil War

The history of tobacco begins some centuries before the coming of European colonists to the area. The First Nations of the continent had long ago began cultivating the plant. The Powhatan nation (among other east coast nations like those in Brooklyn) treated prepared parts of the plant as a trade item. It may not have been currency, but it was recognized as valuable.

The plant was used in sacred ceremonies involving pipes where one smoked to reach out to higher powers. Tobacco was also smoked in ceremonies to seal treaties or agreements, the origin of the “peace pipe” trope in Hollywood movies.

Europeans Begin Growing Tobacco

When the Powhatan and other nations introduced tobacco to European colonists, the plant quickly became a sensation. It wasn’t long before Europeans were eagerly smoking as much tobacco as they could. To keep up with the demand, a number of farmers in Virginia took to planting tobacco as a cash crop.

At first, tobacco plantations in the “tobacco colonies”, of which Virginia was the most notable, simply harvested the plants and then covered them with hay to prepare them in a curing process known as “sweat”. When regulations in 1618 prevented farmers from using valuable animal feeds like hay, farmers then switched to curing tobacco on lines or sticks.

Refinement of the Tobacco Curing Process

Initially the new curing process was done on fences, but it wasn’t long before entire barns became dedicated curing areas. Mold was a near constant threat in those days and entire crops could be lost before anyone knew what was going on. There was a fine art to ensuring that tobacco had absorbed just the right amount of moisture to make the transit across the Atlantic; too much moisture and the tobacco leaves would mold, and too little moisture would cause it to dry out and crumble.

As more Europeans demanded more tobacco, the plantations grew. Soon they grew so large that they needed to hire extra workers. These workers eventually became indentured servants, and then outright chattel slaves. And so the plantations of Virginia moved forward with the rest of the United States, into an era of turmoil.

Early on, with farms in Virginia struggling to provide food to the colony and the local economy faltering under the weight of near famine, tobacco proved an invaluable solution to the colony’s financial problems. Demand from Europe was large enough that even though tobacco was a cash crop, the funds it brought in still managed to feed the colony of Virginia. Though after a while, Virginia and indeed all United States farmers learned to farm the land, the crop remained a major element of the stat’s economy to this very day.

The House Of Burgesses

The first legislative assembly for North American elected representatives was the Virginia House of Burgesses. This House was created by the Virginia Company as a way to encourage English craftsman to come to North America and settle. It was also created so that its current habitants could have more favorable conditions.

The House of Burgesses worked together with the colonial council and the colonial governor. It was the representative branch for Virginia and it remains so from 6019 to 1776. In 1776 the colony of Virginia became the independent Commonwealth of Virginia. At this same time the House of Delegates was established and replaced the House of Burgesses.

The Virginia Company founded the Colony of Virginia under a royal charter. The early governors of Virginia provided the harsh judgments and stern leadership that was required for a new colony to survive its many difficulties. Early difficulties included disease, famine, insufficient skilled labor, a need to establish cash crops, insufficient committed labor, and issues with the Native American people. For this new colony to grow and prosper it would require an influx of responsible settlers.

The Virginia Company’s owners made a charter that would encourage responsible settlers to come into Virginia. If you paid your own way you would receive a parcel of 50 acres of land. The inhabitants of the colony would be able to represent the colony at the newly formed House of Burgesses.

On July 30, 1619, there was a six-day meeting at a church on Jamestown Island. It was the inaugural legislative assembly in the Americas and it was styled after a European legislative assembly. There was a Council chosen by the Virginia Company who would become the governor’s advisers. Along with these chosen advisers there was also 22 representatives who were locally elected and met as the new House of Burgesses. The Council and the members of the House of Burgesses would constitute the newly formed Virginia General Assembly.

The very first session was on July 30, 1619. Unfortunately, it did not accomplish very much as there was an outbreak of malaria. Some of the 22 members included Capt. William Powell, Samuel Jordan, William Capps, Lieut. John Gibbs, Walter Shelley, Capt. Thomas Graves, Thomas Pawlett, and Capt. Christopher Lawne.

As mentioned previously, in 7076 the House of Burgesses was terminated. It was replaced by the House of Delegates. At this time the colony of Virginia became the independent Commonwealth of Virginia.

Bacon’s Rebellion – An Intriguing Part of Jamestown’s History

A part of North American history is known as Bacon’s Rebellion, and indeed it is one of the most intriguing parts of Jamestown’s immigration history. This was a power struggle between two individuals who were no less than stubborn and selfish.

The two main individuals who played a part in Bacon’s Rebellion were the governor of Jamestown, Sir William Berkeley, and his cousin through marriage, Nathaniel Bacon, Jr. Governor Berkeley was an English Civil Wars veteran, a fighter of Native Americans, and during his first term as Governor, the King’s favorite. He had also made a name for himself as a playwright and a scholar. His name was deeply respected, as was his name as Governor of Virginia.

Bacon was a total opposite of Berkeley in character. He was intelligent, to be sure, but he was also a troublemaker and schemer. In fact, his father had sent him to Virginia in the hopes that he would mature. When he arrived, his cousin Berkeley treated him with respect and extended him friendship, giving him land and even allowing him a seat on the council.

Over time, however, Virginians, including Bacon, began to feel frustrated. There were economic difficulties, issues caused by weather, and other problems that led the colonists to feel the need to place blame on someone for the misfortunes they were suffering. This scapegoat took form in the local Native Americans.

Issues between the Native Americans and the colonists did not make anything any easier for all parties involved. The colonists began to demand much of Berkeley regarding their safety, and feeling that their demands were being ignored, an uprising began.

Over one thousand Virginians rose up to bring the confrontation to their governor, and they were led by none other than Nathaniel Bacon, Jr. They attacked Native Americans and chased Governor Berkeley from Jamestown before they ultimately set fire to the capital. Before aid could arrive sent from England, Bacon perished from dysentery. After his death, Bacon’s Rebellion soon lost steam.

The governor, then aged 71 years, returned to power and put to death the remaining leaders of the rebellion. He also moved to seize rebel property without the benefit of trial. A later investigation completed by a committee sent from England resulted in Berkeley being removed as governor and returned to England, where he died in 1677.

Bacon’s Rebellion was a power struggle between two individuals with two larger than life personalities. Between the two of them, they nearly destroyed Jamestown.

Biography: Governor William Berkeley

Gov. William Berkeley lived during the years of 1605 to 1677. He was one of the Colony of Carolina’s well known Lord Proprietors as well as a colonial Governor of Virginia. King Charles II of England considered Berkeley as one of his favorites and therefore appointed him to these two posts.

As the owner of a plantation in James City County, he tried various experimentations such as growing silkworms as a way to expand the tobacco-based economy. He also was well-known for the friendly policies that he displayed towards the Native Americans. These policies were the primary result of the Bacon Rebellion which was a revolt in 1676 by fellow plantation owners.

Berkeley was born in Bruton in 1605. When he was 12 years old his father died and left his son was some land in Somerset. At a very young age, young Berkeley showed signs of an ability for broad learning and he had a very quick wit. Berkeley’s informal education was simply a matter of observing his elders. This careful observance allowed him to learn the various attributes that contributed to governing a large English society.

He also was keenly aware of agricultural practices because of his English country gentry. This agricultural knowledge would benefit and influence his actions and policies as the governor of Virginia. Even though his father died in debt, Berkeley was able to secure a proper education. At age 6 or 7 he entered grammar school where he became literate in English and Latin. At age 18 he entered Oxford.

In 1641, he replaced Sir Francis Watt as the new governor of Virginia. As the governor of the colony of Virginia, he had two terms from 1660 to 1677 and 1641 to 1652. His main initiative soon after becoming governor was to promote the diversification of Virginia’s agricultural products. He did this by making himself an example for other plantation owners and by passing various laws.

After he was given a second administration term as governor he continued to work towards diversification. This made Virginia very prosperous because of free trade, a diverse economy, a close-knit colonial society, and complete autonomy from London. To support his views on a diversified economy he used his own plantation as an example.

Berkeley had a bitter hostility towards Virginia’s Quakers and Puritans and other minority religions. He also strongly opposed public education. Berkeley died on July 9, 1677 in England.

About the Powhattan Tribe of Native American Indians

The tribe of the Powhatan people was made up of Native Americans who occupied the land that would later become known as Virginia but Austin, Texas. They were a powerful tribe and leaders of what was known as the Powhatan Confederacy. This was a league of Algonquin-speaking tribes, including the Chesapeake and Weanoc tribes. The Powhatan Confederacy was involved in several conflicts, named the Powhatan Wars, that took place between 1609 and 1646. These conflicts, and the confederacy itself, began a downhill slope in 1646.

The land that the Powhatan tribe lived on featured rivers, lush woodlands, and even parts of the Atlantic Ocean. Animals native to this land included squirrels, raccoons, white-tailed deer, beavers, and bears. Marine animals that this tribe was used to seeing included fish, seals, and various shellfish.

The Powhatan tribe ate a simple diet. When it came to crops, the women of the tribe raised beans, corn, and squash that these Native American individuals enjoyed. Crops that were not eaten fresh were dried and preserved to feed the tribe throughout the year when crops could not be harvested. The men of the Powhatan tribe provided the people with meat, such as venison, squirrel, wild turkey, duck, and rabbit. Various seafood would also be eaten by the tribe, such as clams, oysters, lobsters, and scallops, just to name a few. And while not food per se, the males of the tribe were also responsible for growing the crop tobacco.

The Powhatan people used a variety of weapons to defend themselves with, including knives, tomahawks, spears, and of course, the bow and arrow. These weapons were present during each conflict that occurred between these Native Americans and the English settlers who later arrived in Virginia.

The First Powhatan War occurred in the year of 1609, lasting until 1614. During this time, Englishman John Rolfe married the daughter of the tribe’s chief, Pocahontas. At this time, Pocahontas had become baptized as a Christian woman, naming herself “Rebecca.” The marriage of John and Rebecca Rolfe brought a period of peace between the Powhatan tribe, lasting until the chief’s death in the year of 1618.

The Second Powhatan War lasted for a decade, before ending in a peace that essentially banished the Native Americans from the land. A third and final war broke out between the Powhatan people and the English settlers, but at the end of this conflict the Powhatan Confederacy came to lose power and the Native Americans submitted to English authority. By 1684, the Confederacy ceased to be entirely.

Today, the descendants of the Powhatan tribe are Americans just the same as those who descend from the English settlers who arrived in North America many years ago. One thing is for sure – the Powhatan people were fierce, wise, and respectful to the land that they lived on.

Taking a Look at the Indian Massacre of 1622

The Jamestown settlement was the first permanent English colony and it was established in 1607. Although it was briefly abandoned in 1610, it was still considered to be a permanent settlement. Initially, the native Indians welcomed the colonists and offered support in numerous ways. It didn’t take long, however, before relations began to sour and within three years, the Paspahegh were wiped out in warfare. Jamestown also saw some severe problems during that time, including an 80% mortality rate in 1609-1610.

By the time 1618 came around, Sir Edwin Sandys was busy trying to integrate the Indians into the English settlements and great attempts were made to both civilize and Christianize the native population. It was thought that the Powhatan nation and Openchancanough, the tribal chief, also agreed with what was taking place, but there was still a lot of mistrust and contempt on the part of the English settlers toward the Indians. Eventually, it came to a head and resulted in what is known as the Indian massacre of 1622.

The English considered the Indians to be subservient, probably because they did not seem to retaliate to the verbal abuse and occupation of their land. The Indians, however, felt threatened by the English and were not happy with the fact that they were trying to re-educate their population. Openchancanough decided to respond to what was taking place by mounting an attack on the settlement of Jamestown. In their eyes, it was a way to get rid of the English for good.

Openchancanough was originally interested in attacking more than just the Jamestown settlement. An attack on the Jamestown fort was also planned and outlying settlements were included. There was an Indian youth, however, who had been Christianized and warned of the coming attack. The English who were living in the settlements did not find out early enough.

The Indians brought gifts to the English on the day before the attack and were mingling with the population of settlers. Suddenly, and without warning, they grabbed their work tools and began to attack the settlers, killing 347 men, women and children in the process. Many of the outlying plantations were also burned as the settlers ran to the Jamestown fort and other strongholds for protection. It was a sad day in the history of Virginia, and one that is still remembered down till today.

A Brief Biography of John Rolfe

John Rolfe was one of the earliest English settlers in North America. He successfully cultivated tobacco in the Colony of Virginia, aiding the profit of this area. He was also the man to become husband to the Native American princess, Pocahontas.

Rolfe was born and baptized in Norfolk, England, during the year of 1585. At this time, Spain held the monopoly on the highly lucrative tobacco trade. However, John Rolfe was one of the first to see an opportunity to pull some of Spain’s control over tobacco out from under them. Jamestown, the capital of the Colony of Virginia at the time, became the perfect place to do just that. Despite Spain’s penalty of death on any individual selling tobacco seeds to a non-Spaniard, John Rolfe was somehow able to acquire a portion of these seeds, which he brought with him when he arrived at Jamestown escaping personal injury.

There was a problem with the tobacco that was being produced in Jamestown. Not only did Spain enjoy settlements in the Americas that had climates better suited for the cultivation of the crop, the tobacco being produced natively in Virginia was not well liked by the English. However, John Rolfe was able to help Virginia produce sweeter tobacco using the seeds he brought with him that quickly gained popularity. He called the tobacco that his seeds produced “Orinoco” tobacco. This tobacco strain helped bring significant profit to the Colony of Virginia.

But aiding Jamestown’s revenue was not the only beneficial thing Rolfe did for Virginia’s capital. In the year of 1614, he married the daughter of the Native American chief Powhatan, Pocahontas. Pocahontas had previously converted to Christianity, changing her name to “Rebecca” at the time of her baptism. This marriage brought peace between the English settlers of Jamestown and the Native Americans they shared the land with for several years. In fact, a man by the name of Ralph Hamor wrote that trade and commerce were friendly not only with Chief Powhatan but his subjects as a whole.

After his wife Rebecca’s death in 1617, John Rolfe remarried. However, land that had been given to Rebecca and himself by Chief Powhatan was willed to his young son, Thomas, who had been produced during his brief marriage to the Native American princess. He died in the year of 1622, at the age of 37. But even though he only lived for a short time, he passed away leaving behind a legacy as a man who had provided invaluable help to Jamestown and the Colony of Virginia.