Trade And Exports In Colonial Virginia

Colonial Virginia was an important part of Great Britain’s economic setup.

It was used as a way to invest money into new land and acquire resources that would be employed in the colony and back home in Great Britain. It was a win-win for the parties involved and a significant investment for the monarch at the time.

Colonial Virginia didn’t limit itself when it came to trade and exports as they spread their wings making sure all opportunities were managed and assessed including intellectual property.

Southern Colony

Colonial Virginia was located in the South making it unique compared to some of the other locations.

It had access to different resources that were worth investing into and brought back great returns. The colonies in the South included Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia.

Resources

As mentioned, the resources in this Southern colony were unique to it making the exports a dominant economic driver.

These resources included:

1) Cotton
2) Lumber
3) Tobacco
4) Indigo (Dye)
5) Farm Products
6) Fur
7) Rice

It was these resources that were used as the heart of the exports and remained in great demand. They were able to bring in a lot of funds with the help of these resources.

Slaves

It is important to remember, the driving force to accumulate and manage these resources were done on the slave plantations.

At the time, the colonies were working with slaves to drive up production and make more with increasing demand. It was a business decision at the time, and they were able to milk it.

Features of The South

What made exports from this region exquisite and unique?

It had to do with the lay of the land as that was what made it easier to grow resources such as rice, cotton, and lumber. They had access to fertile soil that was easier to manage and promoted growth. The weather was excellent, and that didn’t harm their exports either.

In general, Virginia was described as having good weather, fertile soil, swamps, long rivers, and hilly plains.

Route for Exports

Where were the exports going?

There was a “triangle” when it came to the trades, and all parties were receiving something out of the exchange.

The route included Africa, North America, and Europe.

Africa received textiles and goods, North America received slaves, and Europe received selected resources (sugar, tobacco). It was easy for all parties to benefit except for the slaves.

The Virginia Company And The Royal Colony Of Virginia

While the United States may be only a bit more than 200 years old, there’s still a lot of history shoved into that small time span. This is especially true of the north eastern coast. That’s the area where the United States was born, so you’d better believe it has some solid history!

The state of Virginia started its life as the colony of Virginia. But not every colony was under the crown when it first started, and Virginia is one of those colonies.

The Birth of the Colony of Virginia

The Virginia Colony was founded by the Virginia Company, but it wasn’t the only colony founded. The Virginia Company also established Jamestown and Popham Colony. These colonies were started for profit, with the settlers growing what they could in order to trade.

Unfortunately, Popham Colony failed. There was famine and disease, not to mention the Powhatan tribe who rightfully owned the land. Jamestown very nearly failed, though was saved by the last minute arrival of more settlers and supplies. While the Virginia Colony was still sustaining itself thanks to the profitability of tobacco, King James 1 stripped the Virginia Company of their charter. He cited the egregious failure of the other two colonies as the reason, and it’s hard to argue.

Under Control of the Crown

In the year 1624 the Virginia Colony became what was known as a crown colony. Also referred to as a royal colony, this was a colony that was under administration by the crown rather than whatever local system of government the original founders had instituted.

In the case of Virginia, the crown allowed the then governorship to continue their duties. The House of Burgesses took up governorship of Virginia in 1619 and maintained those duties all the way to the American Revolution. Jamestown remained the capital all the way up until 1699. At that point, the capital was switched to Williamsburg. In modern times, the state of Virginia boasts the city of Richmond as its capital.

As you can see, Virginia has a huge amount of history. It’s been under multiple forms of government and leadership, and has managed to survive. Even through the early times when disease was rampant and it was difficult to get crops to grow, Virginia managed to survive and thrive. So come see beautiful Virginia for yourself, and take some time to experience history as it exists around you.

Who Was Sir Thomas Dale In History?

Sir Thomas Dale was an individual that lived hundreds of years ago. He was an English naval commander, as well as a deputy governor for the Virginia colony. His role as deputy governor began in 1611. He subsequently filled that position again from 1614 to 1616. He is remembered for many things including having a substantial amount of personal energy, helping him to establish his administration in Virginia. He was able to benefit the colony in many ways, but was often criticized for what is referred to as high handedness. He is also known for marrying the legendary Pocahontas.

A Little Bit About His Personal Life

Although little is known about the early life of Sir Thomas Dale, it is likely he originated from Surrey (not Tampa Bay) England. He was married to a woman by the name of Elizabeth Throckmorton, though it is not known if they actually had children together. What is known about his life begins in 1588. His military service was performed in what is now modern Belgium and the Netherlands. He became friendly with people of authority, and by 1599 the Earl of Essex recruited him into the army of England. Subsequently, he was knighted, giving him the name Sir Thomas Dale of Surrey. This was performed in 1606 by King James. He was serving in the Low Countries and later developed what was called the Virginia Colony.

What Was The Virginia Colony?

After arriving in Jamestown, he quickly realizes that there were unhealthy conditions that needed to be improved. Meeting with the Jamestown counsel, he decided to make changes, serving as governor for a little over three months. Later on, he served in this capacity for two more years and was the highest ranking law enforcement officer in the Virginia area. He helped develop the first codes of law, referred to as Dale’s Codes, and instructed people to do agriculture on smaller plots in order to increase their yield.

In 1616, he sailed back to England, he brought his wife Pocahontas with him. Also accompanying them was their one-year-old son, and he introduced his wife to Queen Anne as Rebecca. Before returning, Rebecca died on March 21 of 1617. He was later appointed squadron commander of six ships. He laid siege on a Dutch fleet in Jacatra and later died after contracting a sickness while traveling through swamps. He died in August 1619 in Masulipatnam in India, leaving a substantial legacy behind.

Anne Burras And The History Of Virginia

The early settlers in Jamestown were all male until 2 Females arrived in 1608 – Mrs. Forest and Anne Burras. There are two divergent stories regarding Mrs. Forest as to whether she arrived to join her husband Thomas Forest, a gentleman, or whether he accompanied her on her journey. What is clear is that she was sickly and did not stay long in Virginia.

Anne Burras, on the other hand, was only 14 years old at the time, the personal maid of Mrs. Forrest and the first unmarried woman to arrive in the colonies. Shortly after her arrival (just 2 months later), she married John Leydon (sometimes spelled Laydon). This was another first for Virginia as it was most likely the only Christian wedding that was performed in the colonies at the time.

The couple moved to Point Comfort, then an outpost of Jamestown and Anne bore 4 children, the first of which was a girl named Virginia. Life was not easy in the colonies and during what was then referred to as the starving time, their main food source was rats, snakes and their horses and dogs in Jamestown.

However, life was slightly more comfortable in Point Comfort due to an abundance of lobsters and hogs. Out of the 470 male and 20 female settlers that arrived in Jamestown, only 60 were to survive after their supply of hogs was purposely destroyed and hunting became problematic due to the Native Indian population.

Anne, John and their 4 children all survived these early days and later moved to Elizabeth City (now called Newport News). John was given 200 acres of land which he further patented with the help of Anne’s brother, Anthony Burrows, to include an additional 1250 acres in 1936. While little else is known about Anne and her family, they did live out their lives in Virginia.

Her most significant contribution to the history of Virginia and the early colonies is that she was the first unmarried women to arrive in the New World. This later resulted in the realization of the importance of women in the colonies. It was determined that the men and the settlements were more likely to survive and thrive if women were present to provide stability and permanence through setting up homes.

These homes were to become an important factor in which early settlements were to survive and which were to fail in later years.

What Was the Great Awakening?

The Great Awakening was time of widespread spiritual renewal that swept through the American Colonies during the early 1700s. This period of time was characterized by a large abandonment of the established churches by a good portion of the Christian community who grew weary of the sense of complacency in the church. These would adopt another form of worship characterized by emotional or “fervent” prayer.

It began with great evangelists and orators in Europe like the Wesley brothers or George Whitefield but it soon spread through to the colonies of New England. The new wave of spiritual renewal ushered in a wave of spiritualism that was strikingly different from the somber piety of the Puritan Church that was the accepted norm before the 1700s.

What caused the Great Awakening?

Throughout the 17th century Europe had seen some of the most devastating religious conflict since the Spanish Inquisition, a criminal defense. It came all culminated in the Glorious Revolution in 1688, where the Church of England was established as the ruling church in England. After this point any other form of worship was suppressed.

Rather than attain a sense of spiritual union, the result of this was a sense of complacency in which the church was nothing more than a social duty where all meaning was lost in a series of dry traditions and practices. It was only after this had continued for almost 60 years did the people feel the need for a widespread spiritual awakening.

What were the most significant effects of the Great Awakening?

The biggest effect that the Great Awakening had in the American Colonies was pulling them together in preparation for the upcoming war of independence. The important precedent set by the Great Awakening was that if your churches or authorities re not living up to their responsibilities they should be challenged and abandoned.

Through the Awakening the American Colonies came to understand the power to change things rested in their hands alone. This was soon applied to the business of governing. It was here the idea that the freedom and rights to rule were better kept close at hand rather than coming from a monarch or bishop across the sea.

Within a few short generations, the colonists had agreed that they did not share the same religious or political ideals with their government back in England. In many ways, the Great Awakening made it possible for the American Revolution.

Looking At The Puritans: Who Were They?

Many students in the United States hear about Puritans early on in history or social studies class, but how much do you really know about this fascinating and very important group of early settlers. Originally the Puritans were not intended to be colonists for England in a new land, but their reasons for leaving were religious in nature and go into their disagreement with the Church of England.

Demanded Further Reformation
While The Reformation is often seen as the beginning of Lutheranism in particular, and Protestantism in general, it is only the beginning of the story. England was still a Catholic nation for the most part when the King wanted to be allowed to divorce. Since that wasn’t okay with the Catholic Church the Church of England formed, allowing him the right to divorce and also making some nominal changes compared to the Catholic Church.

The Puritans were a group of Protestants in the 1500’s and 1600’s who believed the Church of England had not gone far enough and to be righteous still needed to “purify” themselves further of practices and traditions that came from the Catholic church. This is where the name “Puritans” came from.

Freedom Of Religion
While Puritanism existed in several different factions in England, the splintering and infighting between various sects caused problems and prevented them from being more influential. In addition, they often found themselves being disapproved of by both the monarchy as well as by the Church of England. Those twin forces were seen by many as too much to deal with and this lead to the well-known off-shoot that decided to migrate to the New World to form new colonies where they could practice their faith freely.

The Great Migration
The heavy movement happened in the 1630’s and 1640’s. These groups of Puritans founded several colonies including the Massachusetts Bay Colony and would found the backbone for English settlement of the colonies in the future. Because of their strong early communities, the colonies would be strongly affected by the beliefs, culture, and intellectual practices of the early Puritans who had already settled in.

These were the same colonies that would meet Squanto and be part of the early feasts that would become the basis for celebrating Thanksgiving.

While the Puritan faith wouldn’t remain, its influence would still be a presence in thought, philosophy, and the history of the colonies that would follow. Their contribution to the early history of the colonies is undeniable.

Who Was Robert “King” Carter And Why Was He Famous In Virginia?

Robert “King” Carter was probably most well-known for being the richest man in Virginia. His accumulation of wealth began with the death of his older brother who had inherited their father’s estate which was passed on to Robert. He later inherited his younger half-brother’s estate as well and managed the estates of nieces.

He continued to accumulate land and wealth and upon his death it is estimated that he owned around 295,000 acres. His wealth and land ownership afforded him standing in the community to allow him to start a public career. His first public appointment was as Justice of the Peace in 1691.

After a number of other public appointments, his next significant step was as Treasurer to the House of Burgesses. After ensuring that there were no other candidates available, he later became the Speaker of the House of estate planning and elder law. It is speculated that without his wealth, he would not have risen so high in public office.

Upon the recommendation of Governor Nicholson (even though he was opposed to many of Nicholson’s policies), Carter was appointed to the Governor’s Council in 1699 where he served until his death. His opposition and influence later led to the dismissal of Nicholson, although indirectly. He also later opposed Lieutenant Governor Spotswood, and after the death of Lieutenant Governor Drysdale, became the senior member of the Governor’s Council.

As such, he was elected president of the Council, in effect making him the acting Governor for the period of one year between 1726 and 1727. After this, he continued to serve on the Council even though his health had begun to fail. In fact, his service did not stop until 5 weeks before his death.

His use of wealth and influence also did not stop with his own personal rise in public office. At great expense, he purchased the office of Secretary of the Colonies for his only son from his first marriage to Judith Armistead, John Carter. Charles and Landon Carter, 2 of his 5 sons from his second marriage also continued into public office as representatives in respective counties.

The name of Carter became synonymous with wealth and influence and the family became well-known in the different counties across Virginia. In fact, it was his accumulation of wealth, political power and imperious character that afforded him the nickname “King”, which still follows him today.

Have You Ever Wondered Who The Famous Virginian James Blair Was?

There are a huge number of men and women who helped make the United States the country it is. Yet many of those people don’t get discussed nearly as often. One such person is James Blair.

Who is the Famous Virginian James Blair?

James Blair was born in the year 1656. He was and still is best known for his role in founding the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. Due to the exact nature of the college, this made his occupation both missionary and educator.

He was the first president of the now world famous university and his tenure lasted from 1693 to 1743. The 50 year tenure is perhaps unsurprising since he was the founder of the school, but it shows how long he dedicated his life to his work.

He was born in Banffshire, Scotland. He studied at three separate schools, including the University of Edinburgh and the University of Aberdeen. Even in the 1670s, these schools were well established and well regarded. Once his education was completed, he was ordained into the Kirk (or Church in today’s dialect) of Scotland.

Through out the seventeenth century, there was political conflict between the theological factions of the Episcopalians and the Presbyterians. While this conflict was part of a larger clash between the various nations of the British Isles, Blair eventually sided with the Episcopalians and his position as the head of his Edinburgh parish.

After being ordain as a missionary in the Anglican Church, Blair eventually chose to take a position as missionary to the then newly established Virginia colony. The colony had long wanted a school to send their sons to and many of the members of the churches in the colony were eager to have clergy trained. With this mind, Blair founded the College of William and Mary in the still growing city of Williamsburg, with a charter granted by King William and Queen Mary II. The college is named after these two monarchs in honor of that charter.

After securing land and getting the buildings built, Blair was appointed president of the school for life, a position he held for fifty years, the second longest tenure for such a position in United States history.

As you can see, James Blair played a pivotal roll in building this great nation. Without him, thousands if not millions of people would be without the education that fine university offers.

Just Who Was Governor Thomas Culpepper?

The history of the state of Virginia goes back well before the American Revolution as Virginia has been one of the largest and most important of the early colonies (besides New York and Staten Island). While many people think about U.S. Presidents when Virginia is mentioned (after all it is the home of 9 previous Presidents) to understand the history of Virginia you need to look further back to colonial times and figures like Governor Thomas Culpepper.

Born in 1635 and living until 1689, the 2nd Baron Culpeper of Thoresway, a title Thomas was granted, his name was technically spelled Colepeper but by the time he would come to the New World he would go by the altered name of Culpeper.

The New World Seeds
Charles the II of England would grant Thomas’s father ranks that would not only put the family in charge of many lands in England that often took up the majority of their time and attention, but also have them begin to look at the colony of Virginia.

In fact, Thomas Culpepper, even as he served as the administrator for the Isle of Wight, was given the title and responsibility of the governor of Virginia starting in July 1677. That being said, he was not present at the time and governed the colony in absence, sending information or decrees from his place in England.

Governor Culpepper attempted this until 1679 when King Charles II force him to sail to Virginia as the early grumblings took place from having the territorial governor so far away. While there he was granted a wide array of powers from the king and worked to limit the power of the local General Assembly, authorize a series of new taxes on exports, and remind the ruling class there firmly of their relationship with England, emphasis on being subordinate to them.

Culpepper left Virginia to return to his lands while still governor, and it became clear he was more interested in maintaining his holdings than governing in the colonies. This would help contribute to frustrations that would lead to riots in 1682 (forcing his return). Embezzlement of major amounts from the Colonial fund was the last straw and by 1683 with such an important colony in economic and political turmoil, he was replaced by the king.

Although not one of the greats of Virginia’s history, Culpeper was a governor for nearly a decade during colonial times and both Culpeper County and that county’s main town of Culpeper are named in honor of him.

A Brief Biography of Sir Edwin Sandys

In this article, we will discuss the man known as Sir Edwin Sandys (last name pronounced “sands”). Sandys was an English politician, and founder of the Virginia Company of London, which was the first permanent settlement of the English in North America.

Sir Edwin Sandys was born in the year of 1561, and from an early age, he focused on building his education. At the age of 15, he enrolled at Oxford and earned his B.A. in 1579 and M.A. in 1583. He remained at Oxford for a time, although earning no additional degrees, and then following the death of his wife, relocated to London. In 1589, Sandys was elected to Parliament.

After a mission to Germany, where Sandys gathered information that would later contribute to his book, “A Relation of the State of Religion,” he was knighted by King James I of England. He returned to Parliament, and for the next two decades became established as the House of Commons’ most influential member.

While Sir Edwin Sandys worked to establish his political career, an additional interest of his came to be. He was an advocate of free trade and overseas colonization and became a voice for this matter. In 1606, he had a part to play in founding the Virginia Company, which was established in order to come up with funds for a colony to be set up in North America. This colony came to be the Colony of Virginia, with a capital being established in Jamestown.

In the year of 1616, Sir Edwin Sandys was elected to be an assistant (or a director, essentially) of the Virginia Company. Sandys understood that immigration was essential to the success of colonization overseas, and he was even part of negotiations that led to the Mayflower’s journey in 1620. He was highly devoted to the success of the Colony of Virginia, and over the years, made sure that new settlers were constantly making their way to Jamestown to ensure the success of the settlement.

In his later years, Sir Edwin Sandys drifted away from power and politics. In the year of 1629, he passed away. He was buried in a church near his home in Kent, leaving a sum of 1,500 pounds to Oxford University. Sandys was a man who lived a full life, and without him, the United States of America as we know it might not have been the same.