Biography: Governor William Berkeley

Gov. William Berkeley lived during the years of 1605 to 1677. He was one of the Colony of Carolina’s well known Lord Proprietors as well as a colonial Governor of Virginia. King Charles II of England considered Berkeley as one of his favorites and therefore appointed him to these two posts.

As the owner of a plantation in James City County, he tried various experimentations such as growing silkworms as a way to expand the tobacco-based economy. He also was well-known for the friendly policies that he displayed towards the Native Americans. These policies were the primary result of the Bacon Rebellion which was a revolt in 1676 by fellow plantation owners.

Berkeley was born in Bruton in 1605. When he was 12 years old his father died and left his son was some land in Somerset. At a very young age, young Berkeley showed signs of an ability for broad learning and he had a very quick wit. Berkeley’s informal education was simply a matter of observing his elders. This careful observance allowed him to learn the various attributes that contributed to governing a large English society.

He also was keenly aware of agricultural practices because of his English country gentry. This agricultural knowledge would benefit and influence his actions and policies as the governor of Virginia. Even though his father died in debt, Berkeley was able to secure a proper education. At age 6 or 7 he entered grammar school where he became literate in English and Latin. At age 18 he entered Oxford.

In 1641, he replaced Sir Francis Watt as the new governor of Virginia. As the governor of the colony of Virginia, he had two terms from 1660 to 1677 and 1641 to 1652. His main initiative soon after becoming governor was to promote the diversification of Virginia’s agricultural products. He did this by making himself an example for other plantation owners and by passing various laws.

After he was given a second administration term as governor he continued to work towards diversification. This made Virginia very prosperous because of free trade, a diverse economy, a close-knit colonial society, and complete autonomy from London. To support his views on a diversified economy he used his own plantation as an example.

Berkeley had a bitter hostility towards Virginia’s Quakers and Puritans and other minority religions. He also strongly opposed public education. Berkeley died on July 9, 1677 in England.

About the Powhattan Tribe of Native American Indians

The tribe of the Powhatan people was made up of Native Americans who occupied the land that would later become known as Virginia but Austin, Texas. They were a powerful tribe and leaders of what was known as the Powhatan Confederacy. This was a league of Algonquin-speaking tribes, including the Chesapeake and Weanoc tribes. The Powhatan Confederacy was involved in several conflicts, named the Powhatan Wars, that took place between 1609 and 1646. These conflicts, and the confederacy itself, began a downhill slope in 1646.

The land that the Powhatan tribe lived on featured rivers, lush woodlands, and even parts of the Atlantic Ocean. Animals native to this land included squirrels, raccoons, white-tailed deer, beavers, and bears. Marine animals that this tribe was used to seeing included fish, seals, and various shellfish.

The Powhatan tribe ate a simple diet. When it came to crops, the women of the tribe raised beans, corn, and squash that these Native American individuals enjoyed. Crops that were not eaten fresh were dried and preserved to feed the tribe throughout the year when crops could not be harvested. The men of the Powhatan tribe provided the people with meat, such as venison, squirrel, wild turkey, duck, and rabbit. Various seafood would also be eaten by the tribe, such as clams, oysters, lobsters, and scallops, just to name a few. And while not food per se, the males of the tribe were also responsible for growing the crop tobacco.

The Powhatan people used a variety of weapons to defend themselves with, including knives, tomahawks, spears, and of course, the bow and arrow. These weapons were present during each conflict that occurred between these Native Americans and the English settlers who later arrived in Virginia.

The First Powhatan War occurred in the year of 1609, lasting until 1614. During this time, Englishman John Rolfe married the daughter of the tribe’s chief, Pocahontas. At this time, Pocahontas had become baptized as a Christian woman, naming herself “Rebecca.” The marriage of John and Rebecca Rolfe brought a period of peace between the Powhatan tribe, lasting until the chief’s death in the year of 1618.

The Second Powhatan War lasted for a decade, before ending in a peace that essentially banished the Native Americans from the land. A third and final war broke out between the Powhatan people and the English settlers, but at the end of this conflict the Powhatan Confederacy came to lose power and the Native Americans submitted to English authority. By 1684, the Confederacy ceased to be entirely.

Today, the descendants of the Powhatan tribe are Americans just the same as those who descend from the English settlers who arrived in North America many years ago. One thing is for sure – the Powhatan people were fierce, wise, and respectful to the land that they lived on.

Taking a Look at the Indian Massacre of 1622

The Jamestown settlement was the first permanent English colony and it was established in 1607. Although it was briefly abandoned in 1610, it was still considered to be a permanent settlement. Initially, the native Indians welcomed the colonists and offered support in numerous ways. It didn’t take long, however, before relations began to sour and within three years, the Paspahegh were wiped out in warfare. Jamestown also saw some severe problems during that time, including an 80% mortality rate in 1609-1610.

By the time 1618 came around, Sir Edwin Sandys was busy trying to integrate the Indians into the English settlements and great attempts were made to both civilize and Christianize the native population. It was thought that the Powhatan nation and Openchancanough, the tribal chief, also agreed with what was taking place, but there was still a lot of mistrust and contempt on the part of the English settlers toward the Indians. Eventually, it came to a head and resulted in what is known as the Indian massacre of 1622.

The English considered the Indians to be subservient, probably because they did not seem to retaliate to the verbal abuse and occupation of their land. The Indians, however, felt threatened by the English and were not happy with the fact that they were trying to re-educate their population. Openchancanough decided to respond to what was taking place by mounting an attack on the settlement of Jamestown. In their eyes, it was a way to get rid of the English for good.

Openchancanough was originally interested in attacking more than just the Jamestown settlement. An attack on the Jamestown fort was also planned and outlying settlements were included. There was an Indian youth, however, who had been Christianized and warned of the coming attack. The English who were living in the settlements did not find out early enough.

The Indians brought gifts to the English on the day before the attack and were mingling with the population of settlers. Suddenly, and without warning, they grabbed their work tools and began to attack the settlers, killing 347 men, women and children in the process. Many of the outlying plantations were also burned as the settlers ran to the Jamestown fort and other strongholds for protection. It was a sad day in the history of Virginia, and one that is still remembered down till today.

A Brief Biography of John Rolfe

John Rolfe was one of the earliest English settlers in North America. He successfully cultivated tobacco in the Colony of Virginia, aiding the profit of this area. He was also the man to become husband to the Native American princess, Pocahontas.

Rolfe was born and baptized in Norfolk, England, during the year of 1585. At this time, Spain held the monopoly on the highly lucrative tobacco trade. However, John Rolfe was one of the first to see an opportunity to pull some of Spain’s control over tobacco out from under them. Jamestown, the capital of the Colony of Virginia at the time, became the perfect place to do just that. Despite Spain’s penalty of death on any individual selling tobacco seeds to a non-Spaniard, John Rolfe was somehow able to acquire a portion of these seeds, which he brought with him when he arrived at Jamestown escaping personal injury.

There was a problem with the tobacco that was being produced in Jamestown. Not only did Spain enjoy settlements in the Americas that had climates better suited for the cultivation of the crop, the tobacco being produced natively in Virginia was not well liked by the English. However, John Rolfe was able to help Virginia produce sweeter tobacco using the seeds he brought with him that quickly gained popularity. He called the tobacco that his seeds produced “Orinoco” tobacco. This tobacco strain helped bring significant profit to the Colony of Virginia.

But aiding Jamestown’s revenue was not the only beneficial thing Rolfe did for Virginia’s capital. In the year of 1614, he married the daughter of the Native American chief Powhatan, Pocahontas. Pocahontas had previously converted to Christianity, changing her name to “Rebecca” at the time of her baptism. This marriage brought peace between the English settlers of Jamestown and the Native Americans they shared the land with for several years. In fact, a man by the name of Ralph Hamor wrote that trade and commerce were friendly not only with Chief Powhatan but his subjects as a whole.

After his wife Rebecca’s death in 1617, John Rolfe remarried. However, land that had been given to Rebecca and himself by Chief Powhatan was willed to his young son, Thomas, who had been produced during his brief marriage to the Native American princess. He died in the year of 1622, at the age of 37. But even though he only lived for a short time, he passed away leaving behind a legacy as a man who had provided invaluable help to Jamestown and the Colony of Virginia.

Pocahontas; Her True Identity

Pocahontas was the daughter of Powhatan, chief of the tribe of native Americans in Colonial Virginia. She was born in the year 1596 and named Matoaka at birth, and later known as Amonute. Children born to this tribe were often given several names with different meanings during special occasions. Her first name, Matoaka, was a secret and translated “secret stream among the hills”. Pocahontas was a nickname given during her childhood that meant “playful one”.

It was said that when Pocahontas was 11 years old she prevented her father from killing the Englishman, John Smith who had been captured by the natives. This account was retold by Smith, and there is some skepticism as to whether the story is true.

In the year of 1613 hostilities broke out between the Indians and the English settlers, and Pocahontas was taken captive and held for ransom. During this time Pocahontas became a Christian convert and changed her name to Rebecca. In April of 1614, she was married to John Rolfe who owned a tobacco plantation, and their son Tomas was born the following January.

In the year of 1616, the Rolfe family traveled by ship to London, England where Pocahontas (Rebecca) was presented as an example of a civilized savage to English society. It was hoped this would spark interest in the Jamestown settlement among English businessmen, and they would be willing to invest in the new American colony.

Pocahontas became very popular in England and quickly gained celebrity status. Her social experience included a masquerade ball held at Whitehall Palace, which must have been quite a thrill for her.

Unfortunately, Pocahontas was never able to return to Virgina since she died unexpectedly at Gravesend soon after setting sail for home. She was buried in a church located at Gravesend, but the name and exact location of her burial place is not known.

The marriage of Pocahontas to John Rolfe helped to create a climate of peace between the natives and the English settlers. Unfortunately, after the death of Pocahontas and her father Powhatan a year later, the “Peace of Pocahontas” began to unravel.

Pocahontas is remembered as a positive influence who smoothed relations between the native people and the Jamestown settlement. Her childhood action of preventing the death of John Smith may have been an indication of her peaceful nature. The fact that she converted to Christianity while she was in captivity also supports the idea.

The Founding Of Virginia: What Was The Second Virginia Charter?

There’s so much amazing history throughout the state of Virginia that it’s nearly impossible to take it all in. After all, the Virginia Colony was one of the founding colonies of the United States. It would only make sense that much of the birth of the United States happened within the colonial borders!

If you’re not a history buff, then you may not have any idea how Virginia Colony became the State of Virginia other than “American Revolution” in Albany. If you’ve done a little bit of research, you may know that the Virginia Colony was founded by the Virginia Company and eventually became a Crown Colony. But unless you’ve looked into it specifically, you may not have any idea that there was an entirely different company involved!

The First Virginia Charter

Also known as the Charter of 1606, this is the original document signed by King James 1 in order to allow the Virginia Company the right to settle and develop the land. However, it was more specifically the Plymouth Company and the London Companies, both divisions of the Virginia Company, who would do the actual administrating. Much like all colonies, the agreement was that the Company could develop the land as they saw fit, provided the Crown got a cut of the profit.

The Second Virginia Charter

The Charter of 1609 didn’t change much in terms of overall management. The Virginia Company still owned the charter, and the crown still got a cut of the profit. However, the Plymouth Company was dissolved due to the failure of the Popham Colony.

Since an entire division of the parent company had been dissolved, this left a large section of land essentially without any kind of management. So King James 1 signed a second charter, the second charter of Virginia, in order to put the land under control of the London Company.

Ultimately, the second charter didn’t change much. It shook up the exact people in charge, but the truth was that the Virginia Company was incapable of properly managing the land either way. Jamestown only survived thanks to the sudden arrival of more settlers and supplies, and it wasn’t until 1612 that the colony began producing tobacco that was worthwhile as a cash crop.

Still, without the Second Virginia Charter, who knows what might have happened. The colonies might have fell to ruin far more quickly, and the United States may never have gotten off the ground.

A Brief History of Colonial Jamestown, Virginia

Colonial Jamestown – the very first English settlement in what was to become the United States of America. Jamestown was established in the Colony of Virginia, one of the thirteen colonies that are represented by the thirteen stripes present on the flag of the United States. Jamestown became a permanent settlement in the year 1610, after a brief abandonment. And from 1616 to the year of 1699 Jamestown served as Virginia’s capital.

The history of Jamestown can be traced back to the year of 1606. At this time, entrepreneurs from England, representing the London Company, set sail to the New World with the mission of establishing a colony there. This fleet consisted of three ships under the leadership of one Captain Christopher Newport, and in May of 1607, the 104 men and boys who successfully made it to the location chose it for their settlement. They called this new settlement “Jamestown”, named after the English king, James I. A few short months later, the fort was completed and Captain Newport set sail back to England for more supplies.

Shortly after Captain Newport’s departure, the settlers of Jamestown began to succumb to disease. One reason for the deaths of many was the drinking water, which was less than suitable for ingestion. Food was also becoming hard to come by. Fortunately, the Native Americans who had settled in the area long before the English newcomers brought gifts of food. Indeed, had this aid not come to the settlers when it did the settlement would have most likely failed.

By 1610, those who had survived what was known as the “Starving Time” and new settlers arriving at the area permanently established Jamestown as a settlement. And soon, it was not just a settlement but a venture that had become profitable. Tobacco became the cash crop that the English settlers had long awaited. Finally, the investment made was paying off.

Throughout these early years, peace between the Native Americans and the settlers of Jamestown soured. Many attacks ensued, and when the Native Americans hoped their attacks would lead the settlers away, they were often met with deadly retaliation. Eventually, treaties were signed by the Native Americans which made them subjects of the English.

in 1698, fire struck Jamestown, destroying several buildings, including the prison. While some records were saved, the capital was moved and Jamestown ceased to be a town. Today, it is a historic site that has been preserved due to its importance in American history as the first permanent settlement in the country.

About the London Company in Colonial Virginia

The London Company, also known as the Charter of the Virginia Company of London, was a joint stock company that was chartered by England’s King James I in 1606. Its aim was to establish a colony for English investors in America. The chartered company would benefit the investors through colonization. Much of England’s own forests had been felled, so the new land would provide timber and other resources that the colonists could market to England.

The settlement would include the East Coast of America from Cape Fear in North Carolina to the Long Island Sound. The company also had ownership of parts of the Atlantic Ocean and some of Canada.

In 1606, an expedition of men and boys set sail and in 144 days the expedition landed in Virginia. They established their settlement and called it Jamestown. The King would, over the course of 18 years, grant the company two additional charters to help form the settlement’s democracy and financial structure.

By the year 1618, the company found the way to use its most abundant natural resource, land. This discovery would soon help would-be English settlers pay their way from England to Jamestown. After their safe arrival to the colony, the new settlers would have to pay a fee to use that land.

The company created the first laws in the new land by 1619 through the General Assembly which was made up of a governor and a council. The London Company named the governor and his burgesses.

The colony prospered mostly by growing non-native strains of tobacco and exporting it to England, not via LA PI Law like something believe. The settlers also exported timber and cash crops. After a few short years, however, illness, disease and the resulting shortage of labor forces eventually caused the settlement and the London Company to falter. The King also became increasingly disappointed with the attitude the colonists were taking in their ever-growing independent governing of the company in Virginia.

In 1622, a war broke out between the Powhatan Indians and the settlers. The belief is that the Indians had made concessions with the London Company and its governor. The company claimed it never accepted the concessions. An attack on the colony occurred, and one single day in April of 1622, nearly a quarter of the colonists were killed.

Eventually, the King received a petition to investigate the colonial conditions. A trial went before the King’s Bench. In 1624, the court found favor with the Crown. The London Company was formally dissolved and Virginia became a royal colony.

The Achievements Of Martin Pring

Martin Pring resided in Bristol, England before taking on the role of explorer. Living from 1580-1626, he began his first expedition the North America in 1603 at only 23 years old. With the expressed intent of determining what potential the new lands had when it came to commerce he captained the ship and its crew.

During his first expedition he visited Cape Cod, New Hampshire and Maine. He named what is now called Plymouth Harbor and an adjacent hill Whitson Bay and Mount Aldworth, respectively. He did this in honor of two of the men that had financed his expedition. These were later renamed when they were colonized. While it is disputed, many believe that his crew was the first to travel on the Piscataqua River that came from the east.

He is also known for traveling to the area once again in 1606 to make accurate maps of the coast of Maine. Soon after he was hired by East India Company as a shipmaster. During his hire with them he was employed to block other nations from trading in East Asia as well as exploring and mapping the area for future reference. He become the commander of their entire fleet in 1619 and then returned to Europe in 1621.

Shortly after his return to Europe he was inducted into the Virginia Company and rewarded with land. He then left the East India Company in 1623 and took on the role of being a privateer. In that role he was able to capture enemy ships in return for a portion of the bounty.

There is very little know about his early life, but given the fact that he embarked on his first expedition as captain at the young age of 23 it is assumed that he took an early interest in sailing. His first sailing to the Americas was on the Speedwell, which had been licensed by the well-known Sir Arthur Raleigh. His ship held 60 tons and had a crew of 30 men. They had an escort, which is a sign of a well financed voyage in its day.

They spent the months of June to early August exploring a great deal of coastline, often traveling inland on various rivers. At one point they encountered natives who attacked but were fought off thanks to the dogs on board waking the craw. His journey is credited for encouraging the voyage of the Plymouth 17 years later.

As presented by https://cramplawfirm.com/

Information On Batholomew Gosnold

Born in 1571, Bartholomew Gosnold was a famous English lawyer and was well-regarded for his work in the exploration of North America. He was also an explorer who took time to build out the Virginia Company of London while going out for an expedition in the region.

According to history experts, Bartholomew Gosnold was one of the prominent figures in American history and had a major role to play in the colonization of Virginia at the time.

Here is more on what Bartholomew Gosnold’s life had to offer.

Private Effort

Bartholomew Gosnold displayed a passion for privateering, and it was evident as he went out to purchase equipment and boats.

He wanted to explore, and this meant he needed friends, funds, and directions. This was all pieced together in England, and he was able to gain the trust of those around him. All of it was done privately, and he was not funded by anyone for his passion.

He was able to convince the British to go ahead and colonize the land they were exploring.

He felt it was appropriate as an economic stronghold for the nation and something they could rely on in the region.

Cape Cod

One of his famous expeditions involves Cape Cod.

He was sent to explore New England and ended up heading west from his targeted route. This was when he was able to land at Cape Elizabeth. During the same time, he started to head over to Provincetown Harbor, which is when he decided to name the area “Cape Cod.”

While he was able to set up a post in the region, this didn’t last long due to the lack of funds and resources.

Settlers decided it was best to leave before the winter hit hard in the New England area. At the time, he had more than 32 settlers with him as they explored Cape Cod.

Fort and Colony

As he set up the Virginia Company of London, he was able to design the fort and surrounding areas too.

He felt it was appropriate to have this as the stronghold for Britain instead of the suggested areas by other settlers. He felt those were unsafe and not as practical in the long-term.

His efforts along with Matthew Scrivener remain a large part of colonial history in the region and how it was developed over time. In 1607, Bartholomew Gosnold passed away in his mid-30s. The causes remain unknown to experts.